Anthropogenic impact on the microbiota of soils in the areas of isolated polar settlements

Theme 1. Environmental protection
Session Name 1.5 Sanitation in small Arctic communities
Datetime Sep 05, 2018 03:30 PM - 03:40 PM (UTC +3)
Presentation Type Oral
Author(s) Shamil Teshebaev (Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute of the Russian Federal Service on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Protection, Russian Federation), Sergei Avrusin (Saint-Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, Russian Federation), Yaroslav Bobko (Saint-Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, Russian Federation), Tatiana Burtseva (Yakutia Science Center for Complex Medical Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation), Vyacheslav Chasnyk (Saint-Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, Russian Federation)
Abstract text

Background. The study of the anthropogenic impact on the microbiota of soils is a rapidly moving field of research. Influence of microbial communities on human health is perceived as one of the most exciting advancements in recent years, though most often the improvement of soil fertility is the main field of interest, which assumes that inarable tundra is not taken into consideration. However, taking in account vulnerability of microbiota in polar regions, the anthropogenic impact can have dramatic consequences.

The objective of the study was a bacteriological assessment of soils surrounding polar stations and zones of economic activity in the Russian Arctic. 

Study design/methods. During fieldwork, an assessment of representation of saprophytic microflora was performed and characteristics of psychrophilic microorganisms were studied using standard procedures. Totally 218 soil samples from 33 autonomous arctic settlements located in Western and Central sectors of Russian Arctic have been studied.

Results.  Independently of the type of anthropogenic load, changes in microbiota can be described as the growth of total microbial population through exogenous microflora and the simultaneous decrease in population of natural microflora, specific for the given geographical region. Most often non-spore forming bacteria were found, although in intact tundra their portion was 95% (all psychrophilic) and around settlements – 66% (almost all human-associated saprophytes).   

Conclusions. Anthropogenic impact on the microbiota of soils in areas of autonomous arctic settlements is significant. It transforms microbiota, increasing the population of exogenous microflora.

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