Establishing boundaries and nomadic routes by the Territorial Registration Expeditions in Iamalin the first half of the 20th century

Theme 2. Connectivity
Session Name 2.8 Border securitization and connectivity in the Arctic
Datetime Sep 06, 2018 02:15 PM - 02:30 PM (UTC +3)
Presentation Type Oral
Presenter
Author(s) Elena Volzhanina (Tyumen Scientofic Centre SB Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation)
Abstract text

The presentation deals with issues of the traditional land use of Iamal Nenetses and its changes by the Territorial Registration expeditions in the first half of the 20th century. Since the Soviet power was instituted in tundra, the latter had aimed to establish the administrative control over nomads, to reduce their nomadic routes, and then to transfer them to a sedentarity. Boundaries of pastures, fishing and hunting places were determined and established for each nomads group in the Iamal Peninsula. To achieve these goals government organized economic censuses, land expeditions and national-territorial councils. The research is based on the set of archival documents using historical and geographical methods. As a result participators of land expedition presented an ideal land order for nomads, which was the first state project to rationalize and regulate the traditional land use of reindeer herders, hunters, and fishermen in the Iamal peninsula. It was important that government passing the land to the indigenous people for free it has officially approved the practice of resolving land issues on the basis of the state laws, rather than common law. Nomads were registered at national councils for the organization of their account and control over them. However, the practice showed that the project was impossible to implement immediately as the territorial principle was impossible to apply to nomadic reindeer herders, the project did not eliminate disputable issues in the land use of nomads and patrimonial land use practically did not exist in Iamal peninsula at that moment.

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